I’m bored, let’s write another blog post, see if I can turn my boredom into something helpful for other people.

Avoid Using Hardcoded Strings

While this may be controversial, it is my opinion that production-quality code should never have magic String values, or you should at least never use quotes if you are not assigning a constant.

A magic String is a raw "string value" that you pass directly to a a method for example. They are called “magic” because the "string value" magically makes the code work. It may not be entirely clear what the purpose of the String is, or why the String has the value that it does when you are doing code review.

Firstly, production-quality code should essentially have no errors due to a misspelled String constant. String constants, especially ones that are long or used multiple times are commonly misspelled. If you extract magic Strings into a constant, you can reuse the constant multiple times so long as you ensure that the original assigned constant is spelled correctly. Pulling Strings into a constant forces you to slow down and focus on the task of writing the constant itself, which reduces the chance of making spelling mistakes. It is incredibly disappointing when the project has a few spelling errors here and there that make the development cycle that much longer to fix for a rather trivial issue that can be entirely avoided.

Secondly, always using static final constants forces you to place them at the top of the file, which means that it is easier for you to look over each String and review the spelling, capitalization, etc. You can go over all your Strings at once if you have them in a single class holding all constants, so code review is extremely easy.

Finally, using constants allows you to make your code easier to understand and extensible. By having named constants take the place of magic Strings, the constant name can be used to document the purpose of the code. For example, examine the following code:

sendMessage("reply", message);

What do you think the "reply" String does? Now examine the code when the magic String value is replaced with a constant:

private static final String REPLY_FORMAT_CFG_KEY = "reply";


sendMessage(REPLY_FORMAT_CFG_KEY, message);

Now when you read over the code, you understand that the String is actually a configuration key that specifies the format for a reply message. Constant names give context and help programmers avoid mistakes by identifying the purpose of the value, which will help avoid copy-paste errors. If you wanted to change the String in the future, you will be able to easily find the constant and change all the uses of that particular constant as well.

As always, rules do have exceptions, and there are places where a constant name is probably extra work. I myself don’t even use constants that often for Strings, even though I should definitely do it more. For example, when I am writing a configuration file wrapper, I will probably forgo with the constants, since configuration keys are pretty unique, their usage is pretty clear, I know myself and my peers probably can tell the intent of the String, and I’m only using it once, in the wrapper file itself. That being said, I do make copy-paste mistakes as well as mispell the config key names sometimes, both issues that I could avoid by always using constants instead of using a magic String value.

In short, it may seem like extra work, but having a policy to reduce the usage of magic Strings, and as a matter of fact, magic values in general (numbers are even more difficult to guess the purpose of), will reduce the chance of making mistakes in this area as well. You get out what you put in, in a way.


I usually put a few ending thoughts here, but there’s not really much to end on today.

As is customary, I leave with the following wisdom from The Power of Ten:

If the rules seem Draconian at first, bear in mind that they are meant to make it possible to check code where very literally your life may depend on its correctness: code that is used to control the airplane that you fly on, the nuclear power plant a few miles from where you live, or the spacecraft that carries astronauts into orbit. The rules act like the seat-belt in your car: initially they are perhaps a little uncomfortable, but after a while their use becomes second-nature and not using them becomes unimaginable.

I’ve been doing a little but of Bukkit stuff, a little bit of Java-general stuff here and there, I might do a C-related post later on. I’ve never really talked about my interest in astronomy so a little bit about how my fate works would be a good start.

I’ve also recently finished my pbft-java project as well, and I’m eager to talk about the different decisions I made over the course of the project.